Saturday, January 30, 2016

Susunan Tata Surya

Sebelumnya di sekitar matahari terdapat 9 (sembilan) planet naun karena ukuran sangat kecil dan melanggar orbit, maka salah satu planet tereliminasi sehingga hanya menjad 8 (delapan) planet. Ke delapan planet tersebut yaitu merkurius, venus, bumi, mars, yupiter yang merupakan planet raksasa, saturnus, dan uranus serta planet neptunus. Berikut akan dipaparkan mengenai susunan tata surya.
1. Matahari  
Pusat tata surya kita adalah matahari. Ukurannya sangat besar berdiameter kurang lebih 1.392.500 km. Tersusun dari gas hidrogen sebanyak 70%, gas helium sebesar 25% dan 5% dari gas lainnya. Jarak antara matahari dan bumi kurang dari 150 juta km. Suhu luar matahari sekitar 60.000 celcius. Matahari terdiri dari beberapa bagian yaitu fotosfer, kromosfer, prominensa dan korona serta bintik matahari.
2. Planet
Gerakan planet mengelilingi matahari disebut dengan revolusi. Seperti yang telah diketahui bahwa terdapat delapan planet yang menglilingi matahari, sebagai berikut.
·         Merkurius, merupakan planet yang terdekat dengan Matahari. Di permukaanya terdapat kawah terbesar yang disebut dengan kolaris. Merkurius juga disebut dengan bintang pagi atau bintang malam dengan waktu edarnya 88 hari, jarak  dengan matahari sekitar 58 juta km. Planet ini tidak memiliki satelit alami dan merupakan planet terkecil dengan massa 0,055 dari massa bumi.

·         Venus, adalah planet ini hampir seukuran dengan bumi bermassa 0,815 dari massa bumi. Seperti halnya bumi, venus juga mempunyai selimut kulit silikat yang tebal dan berinti besi. Namun venus lebih kering dari pada bumi dan atmosfernya juga lebih padat dari pada bumi. Venus juga tidak mempunyai satelit. Dengan suhu permukaan mencapai 400 C Venus disebut sebagai planet terpanas, yang disebabkan dari jumlah gas rumah kaca yang terkandung dalam atmosfer.

Ecosystem balance

Forest ecosystems including natural ecosystems. Natural ecosystems are ecosystems formed by itself without human intervention. The natural balance of the ecosystem can be disturbed due to human activities. Humans are causing the greatest disruption to the ecosystem. What is an ecosystem? Ecosystem is the interplay (reciprocal) between the living and the environment. Ecosystem formed by the components of living things (biotic) and creatures not living (abiotic). Biotic component consists of humans, animals and plants. Biotic components can be divided into three (3) categories, namely:

Biotic components
Abiotic components are all factors making up the ecosystem composed of inanimate objects, among other things: sunlight, temperature, oxygen, water, and soil, and so on. Sunlight is the energy source of all existing organisms.

In an ecosystem there are units of living things, including:
Individual, ie the smallest unit of living things or also known as a single unit of living things.
Population, which is a kind of living groups and occupy certain areas.
Community, which is a set of populations that inhabit a particular region.
Ecosystem, namely the interrelationships between the living and the environment.
Biome, which is a collection of ecosystems within a given territory. Example: desert, grassland, savanna and Steva.
Biosphere, namely all the ecosystems that exist on the surface of the earth.
In ecosystems there must be interaction or reciprocal relationship between the components with each other. The interaction can be mutually beneficial interactions, adverse or no effect on each other. The types of interaction are:
Symbiosis, divided into three types: mutualism, parasitism, and komensalisme.
Forms of Symbiosis
Ecosystems are said to be balanced is when all the components of both biotic and abiotic portion should be on both the number and role in the environment. In ecosystems events eating meals that we refer to as the food chain. Ideally in a food chain of the amount of each of its members must comply with the rules of the ecosystem. In an ecosystem there must be a balance between producers and consumers. Life can still take place if the number of producers is greater than I. Consumers consumer level I level more than the consumer level II and beyond.

Ecosystem imbalance occurs when all the biotic and abiotic components are not on the portion that should both the number and role in the environment. So it can be said to be unbalanced if one of the components in the ecosystem is damaged. For example, the rat population in the fields continue to be hunted by little because the farmers would result in snake populations declining due to run out of food in the form of a rat.

Causes Disruption of Ecosystems Balance

In addition to natural factors, circumstances that greatly affects the balance of the ecosystem is the presence and activities of humans. With sense and mind, people will easily transform an environment. The result is damage and unbalance the ecosystem. There are two important factors that cause tergangunya ecosystems. Namely: (1) natural factors and (2) the human factor.
Natural Factors' factor that occurs due to natural disasters. For example: floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and others. If an environmental disaster will usually be contained one faulty component causing the environment becomes unbalanced.
Human Factors' factor that occurs caused by human hands. Human activity can lead to disturbance of the balance of the ecosystem. Here are some of the human activities that affect the balance of the ecosystem.
The following human activities that can disrupt ecosystems

1. Illegal Logging and Burning Tree in the Forest

Household appliances made of wood. This type of wood is widely used to meet human needs, such as meranti, camphor, teak, and mahogany. The types of wood taken from the forest. The existence of illegal logging can cause damage to a living plant and animal habitats. As a result, many species of plants are to be reduced and eventually become scarce. This happens because making continuous but not done replanting. Plants that have become extinct due to habitat destruction for example teak trees, orchids and flower Rafflesia.

Forests have a very important role for the ecosystem. In the woods live different kinds of animals and plants. Forests provide food, shelter, and protection for these animals. If the trees are cut down constantly, a food source for animals that live in the tree will also be reduced, or no, because it's a lot of animal food shortages. As a result, many animals were destroyed and become scarce. In addition to cutting down trees, humans sometimes open farmland and housing by burning the forest. As a result, a layer of soil can be burned, the soil becomes dry and infertile. Land animals can not live, many large animals foraging elsewhere even to human settlements. It can also damage the balance of the ecosystem.

2. Hunting Animals in Continuous
Many human activities that damage the ecosystem balance eg sea fishing with poisons or explosives. This can lead to the destruction of coral reefs. Coral reefs are living a small fish that are bigger fish food. Penangkan kapalkapal fish by trawling can cause a decrease in the number of fish in the sea. Because the small fish trawlers will also netted.

Arrest illegal in some animals, such as turtles, birds of paradise, rhinos, and tigers could cause these animals became scarce. No humans were hunting animals just for fun. Also there who use as a food ingredient, decoration or clothing.

3. Excessive use of fertilizers
The farmers usually do some ways to crops remains good and plenty. Ways that made by the farmers were among the fertilization and pest control. Fertilizer which farmers use are of two kinds, namely natural fertilizers and fertilizers

Natural fertilizer is a fertilizer made from natural materials, for example, from animal waste or leaves that have rotted. Natural fertilizer known as manure or compost. Artificial fertilizer is fertilizer made from chemicals. Examples of artificial fertilizers are urea, NPK, and ZA. The use of artificial fertilizers should conform to the rules of usage as it may affect the ecosystem. Excessive fertilizers if some rain will dissolve and the water washed into rivers or lakes. As a result, in these places there is accumulation of nutrients so that weeds thrive.

To combat the pest, farmers use pesticides or insecticides. Examples of the use of insecticides that damage the ecosystem is not timely usage, excessive in number and type of insecticide is not appropriate. The use of insecticides and pesticides must be in accordance with the provisions that do not kill other creatures, such as birds or other animals that do not damage the plants.

4. Waste Disposal and Waste
Most human activities conducted inevitably results in garbage or waste. Ranging from household waste, agriculture, transport, to industrial waste. The plastic used for packaging are examples of household waste. Pesticides if used excessively can be agricultural waste. Smoke is a waste transportation vehicles. As examples of industrial waste such as waste water and smoke. The existing waste and waste are easily broken down and some are difficult to untangle. If the waste is not done correctly, what happens is environmental damage.

5. Environmental Polluting Activities
Pollute the environment means adding contaminants (pollutants) in the environment so that the environment becomes polluted. There are several kinds of pollution, namely:
Pollution of soil, 'That is the entry of pollutants in the form of a liquid or solid material that goes into the ground that can not be broken down by microorganisms, such as plastics, cans, glass, causing oxygen can not seep into the ground. Other factors, namely the use of pesticides and detergents are seeping into the soil can affect the ground water, flora, and fauna of the soil.
Water pollution, ie the entry of pollutants in the form of a liquid or solid material that goes into the water.
Air pollution, ie the inclusion of air pollutants such as fumes, dust, and soot.
Sound pollution noise pollution caused by the noise of motor vehicles, airplanes, factories roar of the engine, radio or tape recorder that reads loud that it interferes with hearing.
6. Building
Construction of the road passing through the forest can harm the environment. Trees into shelter and animal food sources cut down so that the animal is endangered. This activity is very disturbing the environmental balance. The areas around the hills can be affected by disasters, such as floods and landslides.

7. Mining Activities

Oil drilling and mining of mineral openly would cause environmental damage. Open oil drilling and mining can reduce the natural resources and polluting the surrounding area. As a result of these activities is quite difficult to overcome and cause an area becomes unproductive.

8. Use of Motor Vehicle

The fuel needed to run a motor vehicle. The fuel can be either petrol and diesel. Fuel combustion cause air pollution. These include burning gas produces carbon dioxide to grow. This resulted in the earth is getting hotter. These conditions resulted in some kind of living creature difficulty adapting. Some are dead, and the balance of the ecosystem becomes disrupted.

Imbalances Impact Against Human Beings

Changes in the environment can occur by human activities or natural events such as volcanic eruptions, landslides, and wildfires. Environmental changes that occur, whether by human or natural events can be positive, that is beneficial to human well-being and negative harmful to human life.

Tree felling (Illegal logging or logging (English: illegal logging) is logging, transportation and sale of illegal wood or do not have permission from local authorities) in the woods without calculations would lead to a result of interlocking between biotic and abiotic factors. Deforestation is to eliminate most of the manufacturers in an ecosystem. Because it will lead to the extinction of most of the flora and fauna in the forest. When rain falls on the open ground, then the water will go directly into the soil has a high fertility. In the absence of trees that hold rainwater to seep into the ground will cause the flow of water on the soil surface becomes large. The existence of a large and fast flow will erode the surface of the soil is fertile.

Unbalanced ecosystem will bring adverse effects on living beings in it. The impact was certainly very harmful. Here are some impacts due to disturbance of the balance of the ecosystem for living things, including:

The extinction of a species or population, if elephants are hunted for ivory continues, not only will lead to diminishing elephant population but can cause elephant species will disappear from the face of the earth.
Damage or disaster, the most dominant feeling the effects of the disaster is human. Humans will always feel worried and afraid when the earth experienced a continual disaster. Disasters are very detrimental to human. Humans can lose everything due to the disaster. Loss of property, place of residence and even loss of life.
The emergence of anomalies (strangeness) ecosystem, peculiarities often appear as a result of an unbalanced ecosystem.