Friday, December 11, 2015

Definition of Development Communication, Papers, Articles, Theory, Background

Definition of Development Communication, Definition, Papers, Articles, Theory, Background - Development Communication - In the science of communication has developed a specialization of the application of theory and concepts specifically for the purposes of communication development program, known as Development Communication.

Communication development includes studies, analysis, promotion, and evaluation of communication technologies for all sectors of development.

In a narrow sense, development communication is any and all means, as well as delivery technique ideas, and skills development that come from a party that initiated the development and addressed to the public, with the aim that people understand, accept, and participate in implementing gagasan- ideas presented. Meanwhile, in the broadest sense, communication pembangunann include the role and functions of communication (as an activity of the exchange of messages on a reciprocal basis) among all parties involved in business development, especially among the public and the government, since the process of planning, implementation, and assessment of development (Nasution, 1996: 92).

Pragmatically, Quebral (in Nasution, 1996: 128) formulates that "Communication is the development of communications made to carry out the development plan of a country". He explained also that development communication is one of the breakthrough (break-through) in the social sciences, and is an innovation that should be sought in order to known and accepted before it is used.

Furthermore Gomez (in Nasution, 1996: 128) formulating development communication as follows:

Communication is the development and practical disciplines of communication in the context of developing countries, especially the activities of communication for social change plans. Development communication is intended to consciously improve human development, and that means of communication that would eliminate poverty, unemployment, injustice.

Another discussion about the theoretical concept of development communication have also been raised by some other experts through some of their studies, which are:

1. Study Daniel Lerner
Lerner is seen as the first to perform the study investigated the relationship of communication to development. Work was published under the title The Passing of Traditional Society in 1957. Lerner conducted a study in six countries in the Middle East region, such as Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iran. Lerner core of the study was to analyze the relationship between the level of urbanization with the level of literacy, with the use of mass media and community participation in political activities. According to the modernization of a nation begins to urbanization, and urbanization will increase literacy, and meningakatkan use of media, which further increase the political participation of society. As a benchmark when a country reaches the urbanization rate of 10%, the literacy rate will equally increase even up to 25% and thus the highest correlation of media consumption is the literacy rate.
He explained also that the communication system is an indication and an agent of social change processes. Changes in public communication system always runs in one direction, namely from oral communication system (mouth to mouth) to medium (which uses the media). Oral communication system suitable for traditional communities while the media communication system suitable modern society.

2. Study Mc. Clelland
Mc Clelland study entitled The Achieving Society, which is about the psychological boost that motivates a community to achieve progress. From the results of these studies Mc Clelland obtain several conclusions, which are:
To promote a society must begin by changing the mental attitude (attitude) members.
Community building and have developed driven by the need to achieve something or need for achievement (n / Ach) through various channels of communication that exist in society.
Economic development is influenced by confidence, future oriented, berkopentensi, like risk, and others.

3. Study Wilbur Schramm
Schramm studies focused on the position of the mass media as a communication related to the role of development. In a report titled Mass Media and National Development: The Role of Information in Developing Countries in 1964, which essentially suggests that mass media can help in terms of:
Disseminate information about development, namely the need for a description of the development to all corners masyarat, due principally to change the lives of the whole society.
Teach literacy and other skills, namely to methods or activities that are more modern than the ways in advance and be able to do it yourself.
The public had the opportunity to take part in decision-making in the country, the people need dimotivai to change his destiny and achieve a better life.
From this argument shows that for people who want to progress requires extensive knowledge as a starting point to encourage and develop the desire to change life in the direction of progress. Public attention needs to be focused on the construction of which is expected creations, aspirations and community involvement can be utilized in a more beneficial.

4. Study Inkeles and Smith
The second study entitled Becoming Modern experts: Individual Change in Six Developing Countries in 1962 and 1964, which focused on the individual level. The findings of their study is the expression of that modern human traits are:
Open to new experiences, it means always eager to look for or find something new.
Increasingly dependent (independent) to various forms of traditional powers such as tribes, kings, and so forth.
Confidence in the knowledge and ability to conquer nature.
Oriented mobility and higher living ambition and desire to pursue a career ladder and achievement.
Having a long-term plan and are always up to something far ahead and think about what will be achieved.
An active role in politics, which is marked by the merger of the various organizations, both familial and wider as well as participate in the activities of the local community in which it resides.
Conclusions Inkeles and Smith is also related to economic growth, namely that permodernan institutions such as the media and the school has created a modern man who can fill the role of a career in a variety of modern institutions necessary for economic growth. Although education is the variable that is closest correlation with modernity at the individual level, meaning that the same is true of the mass media.

5. Study Rogers and Shoemaker
Rogers and Shoemaker argued Diffusion of Innovation Theory. This theory examines the messages in the form of ideas or new ideas, which lead to social change.

Diffusion of innovation as a social phenomenon takes place in line with social change, and social change also motivate people to discover and disseminate new things.

The presence of innovations into the middle of a social system is mainly due to the communication between members of a community or between a community with other communities. Through the channels komunikasilah happen recognition, understanding, judgment, which was to generate acceptance or rejection of an innovation.

Communities that receive an innovation does not occur simultaneously. There were already waiting for her, because it is aware of the needs and there were only received after completely believe the benefits of innovation are even survive or reject the innovation in question.

According to Roger and Shoemaker (in Nasution, 1996: 112), people who accept innovation are grouped into several categories, as follows:
Innovators, those who are already basically enjoys new things, and diligently carry out experiments.
Recipients of early (early adopters), that is, people of influence, where friends around him to obtain information, and the people who are more advanced than those around him.
The majority of early (early majority), that people accept an innovation one step ahead of the average for most other people.
The majority of recent (late majority), the new people who are willing to accept an innovation if everyone around him according to his judgment has received.
Leggards, namely the most recent layer receives an innovation.

Dikemukannya also that in accepting the innovation, usually a person will go through a number of stages, as follows:
Knowledge stage. The stage when someone consciously, knowing that there is something innovative.
Bujukan.Tahap stage when someone is considering or are forming attitudes to innovation that have been known before, whether he liked it or not.
Decision stage. The stage when a person makes a decision whether to accept or reject the innovation in question.
Implementation Phase. The stage when a person carries out the decisions that have been made about anything innovation.
Stage assurance. The stage when someone ascertain or confirm the decision that has been taken.

An innovation usually consists of two components, namely the idea of components and component objects (the material aspect or a physical product from earlier ideas). Every innovation has a component of the idea, but many do not have a physical reference. Acceptance of an innovation which has these two components requires the adoption of the form of action (action), whereas for the innovations that only has component ideas, in essence acceptance rather a symbolic decision.

b. Role of Communication in Development
Public perception has been that the communication is not so important in the development process. This is because the theories of development proposed economic thinkers are generally only developed in the tradition of the theory of economic growth, which contains a description of the process of economic change that has taken place in developed countries. The starting point of these theories have always started from the empowerment of the main factors of production, namely land, capital, and labor. In other words, very rarely explicitly included discussion about communication. In some cases the discussion of communication in developing just placed as "lip service" but these statements and then move on to the theory of economic growth only, as if that explanation is complete and sufficient even ironically communication looks precisely placed as an extension of the description of "transport ".

In fact, according to Frey (in Nasution, 1996: 81) "if observed carefully, actually many phases of economic growth according to the theories of the development which is where communication plays an important role".

Frey gave the example of the price system (pricing system) can be seen as a system of communication that is specialized, which provides essential information for rational calculation of reference for planning and economic decision-makers at all levels.

Frey suggested that the discussion of development need to be linked with a more in-depth analysis on the effect of communication that have relevance to the development. Dikemukan frey (in Nasution, 1996: 83) "that while the cost of modernization may be so great, but to a certain extent can be resolved through communication system".

Berkatian with the level of analysis, Hedebro (in Nasution, 1996: 79) identifies three aspects of communication and development, namely:
1. The approach focuses on the development of a nation, and how the media can contribute to these efforts.
Here, politics and mass media functions in a general sense is the object of study, as well as issues concerning the organizational structure and ownership, as well as control over the media. For studies of this type, now used the term communication policy, and an approach that is the most broad and general (common).

2. The approach is also intended to understand the role of mass media in national development, but much more specific.
The media is seen as an educator or teacher, the idea is how the mass media can be used to teach people various skills, and under certain conditions affecting the mental attitude and their behavior. The main issue in the study of this kind is, how the mass media can be used in the most efficient way to teach certain knowledge for the people of a nation.

3.-oriented approach to changes that occur on a local community or village.
Her concentration is on introducing new ideas, products and new ways, and the spread in a country or region. HOW deepen the study of this type of communication activity can be used to promote widespread acceptance of ideas and new products.

Further Hedebro argued twelve (12) to do the role of communication in development, as follows:
Communication can create a climate for change to persuade on behalf of the values, mental attitudes, and behaviors that support modernization.
Communication can be taught new skills, ranging from literacy to the farm, to the environmental success, to repair the car.
The mass media can act as multipliers of knowledge resources.
The mass media can deliver experiences that as the experience itself, thus reducing the cost of psychological and economical way to create a mobile personality.
Communication can increase the aspirations of a real incentive to act.
Communication can help people find new norms and harmony in life.
Communication can make people more inclined to participate in decision-making at the center of social life.
Communication can change the structure of power in society which is characterized by traditional, bringing knowledge to the masses. Those who obtain the information would be meaningful and traditional leaders will be challenged by the fact that there are others who also have advantages in terms of having the communication.
Communication can create a sense of nationality as something to overcome local loyalties.
Communication can help the majority of the population to realize the importance of them as citizens, so as to help improve the political activity.
Communication can facilitate the planning and implementation of development programs relating to the need penduduk.Komunikasi can create economic development, social, and political becomes an ongoing process itself (self-perpectuating).

In relation to the national development of a nation, Schramm (in Nasution, 1996: 85) formulated the basic tasks of communication as follows:
Convey to the public, information on national development, so that they focus on the need for change, the opportunity and the means to make changes, means change, and raise national aspirations.
Allowing the public to take an active part in the decision-making process, expanding the dialogue to involve all those who will make decisions about changes, provides an opportunity for community leaders to lead and listen to the opinion of the common people, and creating a flow of information that goes smoothly from the bottom to the top.
Educating the necessary manpower development, since adults, to children, since learning to read and write, to the technical skills to change people's lives.
Definition of Development Communication

Analysis of the most original and provocative are comments Mc Clelland linking communications with economic development, which is about the importance of public opinion to development. According to Mc Clelland (in Nasution, 1996: 84) that:

In the economic development of society is the strength that summarizes move from institutionalized tradition, to public opinion, which can accommodate changes, and specific interpersonal relationships as well as functional.

From that sense it can be argued that the rigid ways and has been given in dealing with others, to be replaced with patterns more flexible to suit specific needs. Society became more open and effective, because individuals as members of the public can communicate with others for specific purposes. Things like this make people participate with confidence because of the relationship or komuniasi is controlled by the opinions and expectations of "others".

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